Amendment II

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

As Thomas Jefferson said, "The strongest reason for the people to retain the right to keep and bear arms is, as a last resort, to protect themselves against tyranny in government."

In this segment of his Virtual State of the Union, the Virtual President talks about why politicians want to talk about gun control rather than crime control, and delivers the factual evidence and historical truths that make the case for the Second Amendment self-evident.


The first seven minutes of the two-hour documentary "In Search of the Second Amendment," featuring the introduction and the early English experience.


A Violent criminal advocate stronger gun laws to foster a safer work environment and limit their exposure to risk. This is the second posting of this video to Youtube, After nearly 250,000 views an unfounded privacy violation complaint led to the video being removed. Well, here it is again. Copyright 2007 Antiprise Records. Written and performed by Sebastian Deledda. Music by William Brainard and Sebastian Deledda.


Carjacker extols the virtues of gun control and its positive effect on workplace safety while standing over the corpse of a victim. Written, performed and edited by Sebastian Deledda. Music by UV Gowns, Project Animators and Sebastian Deledda. Copyright 2008 Antiprise Records.


The Second Amendment and the Historiography of
the Bill of Rights

by David T. Hardy

The second amendment to the Constitution of the United States recognizes that "[a] well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed."That there is controversy surrounding the interpretation of the second amendment, or any provision of the Bill of Rights, is hardly surprising. While the disputes relating to the first, fourth and remaining amendments focus upon their detailed application, the conflict over the second amendment concerns the question of its very subject matter. One school of thought contends that the second amendment protects a collective right, a narrow guarantee of a state right to maintain organized reserve military units.This interpretation emphasizes the phrase "A well regulated militia being necessary to a free state," and maintains that the subsequent recognition of the people's right to bear arms is a mere restatement of this collective (i.e., state) right. The other school of thought contends that the amendment recognizes an individual right to possess and use arms.This interpretation emphasizes (p.2)the phrase "the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed," and maintains that the preceding description of the militia (i.e., all individuals capable of armsbearing) is a mere explanation of one objective of this guarantee.

The works of neither school entertain the possibility that an "either/or" test may be a gross oversimplification of what are in fact two different sets of constitutional priorities. Yet the fact that prior to 1788 the Framers who proposed protections for individuals' arms did not propose to protect the militia, and those desirous of protecting the militia did not propose safeguards of individual arms, suggests the quixotic nature of previous attempts to demonstrate that the Framers, as a whole, had a single intent. Is it reasonable to assume that John Adams, obsessed with the risk of mob rule, and Thomas Jefferson, who so lightly praised the virtues of frequent revolutions, were of a single mind when it came to popular armaments? When Virginia constitutionalized the principle that a well-regulated militia was necessary to the proper defense of a free state, and Pennsylvania instead guaranteed that the people had a right to bear arms for defense of themselves and the state, was there in fact (p.3)an identical understanding which motivated each statement? Both existing formulations of the second amendment require us to assume precisely that. As a consequence, no existing analysis of that amendment has attempted a critical examination of the proposals for the second amendment against the varied backgrounds and philosophies of their authors, and none has taken account of recent research demonstrating that the different state conventions were dominated by radically differing political philosophies.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------> Read rest of David T. Hardy's article


Our founding fathers thoughts: What our founding fathers said about our right to bear arms in the federalist papers.

  • Thomas Jefferson: No Freeman shall ever be disbarred from the use of arms.
  • John Adams: Arms in the hands of citizens may be used at individual discretion in private self-defense.
  • James Madison: The Constitution preserves the advantage of being armed with Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, where the Government are afraid to trust their people with arms.
  • Thomas Payne: Arms discourage and keep the invader and the plunderer in awe and preserve order in the world as well as property. Horrid mischief would ensue if the law-abiding were deprived the use of private arms.
  • Thomas Jefferson: Laws that forbid the carrying of arms disarm only those who are neither inclined, nor determined to commit crimes. Such laws make things worse for the assaulted and better for the assailants. They serve rather to encourage than prevent homicides from an unarmed man, may be attacked with greater confidence than an armed man.
  • Richard Henry Lee: A militia, when properly formed, are in fact the people themselves. They include all men capable of bearing arms. To preserve liberty is essential that the whole body of people always possess arms and be taught alike how to use them.
  • Samuel Adams: The Constitution shall never be construed to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms.
  • George Mason: To disarm the people is the best and most effectual way to enslave them.
  • Thomas Jefferson: “For a people who are free, and who mean to remain so, a well-organized and armed militia is their best security. “ Thomas Jefferson
  • Thomas Jefferson: “When the people fear their government, there is tyranny; when the government fears the people, there is liberty. “
  • Thomas Jefferson: “The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants."
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